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Lamto : Luc Abbadie : : Blackwell's
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During the early dry season of our study, there were large quantities of live perennial fuel with high moisture content, but the fires had the lowest rate of spread, intensity, and flame height Fig. According to Hoffmann et al. In our study, air humidity was the only weather parameter that varied between seasons with a higher average value during the early fire; i. In dry conditions, fires were faster and more intense, flames were higher, but the maximum residence time was shorter.
Contrary to the reports from studies in other savannas that wind speed Savadogo et al. These two parameters did not change over the seasons in our study, although fire behavior certainly did. A lack of effect of wind speed may be due to generally low wind speed in Lamto Reserve Le Roux , as was also reported in the Brazilian Cerrado Rissi et al. Our analyses indicating that seasonal fuel characteristics and weather conditions jointly contribute to determine fire behavior in these West African humid savannas is consistent with studies of Higgins et al.
In particular, in Lamto Reserve, fuel moisture and air humidity are highly predictive of fire behavior; these variables are relatively easily measured in the field. The models presented in this study are novel and could be useful tools for assessing and monitoring various fire regimes in the humid savannas of West Africa. To date, no other work is available that can be used to predict fire behavior in this region. In our study, although there was no difference in fire behavior between mid dry season and late dry season fires, there were differences in fire severity e.
Indeed, late-season fires are known to negatively impact trees in Lamto Reserve Gignoux et al. Similarly, the high impact of late-season fires on trees is common in other savannas; most studies attribute this phenomenon to higher fire intensity Williams et al. We suggest that the differences in fire severity impact on trees between mid-season and late-season fires despite similar fire behavior is most likely explained by the phenological state of trees, as suggested for humid savannas in Australia Werner and Prior and southeastern North America Robertson and Hmielowski In Lamto Reserve savanna, all trees are leafless during the dry season so that mid-season fire cannot cause significant damage to living tree tissues i.
However, at the end of the dry season or beginning of the rainy season, trees begin to set new leaves, so that fire at this period could be very detrimental Gignoux et al. In addition, the longer lethal temperature residence time during late-season fires compared to mid-season fires could further explain the high impact of late-seaon fire on trees.
Our results support the hypothesis that the generally observed high severity of late-season fires for savanna trees is not due to a higher fire intensity: we found no significant increase in fire intensity in late-season fires compared to mid-season fires. However, to assess this point further, studies are needed relating fire intensity to measures of tree growth and survival under different fire regimes.
Specific qualities of the site e. Among the various aspects of fire behavior, we recommend using flame height measurements, as it is easier to measure than intensity, in order to quickly produce large datasets that could help us to understand and predict fire behavior. The ultimate goal is to improve fire management in West Africa.
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Abbadie, L. Gignoux, M. Lepage, X. Le Roux. Environmental constraints on living organisms. Abbadie, J. Gignoux, X.
Lamto: Structure, Functioning, and Dynamics of a Savanna Ecosystem
Le Roux, and M Lepage, editors. Lamto: structure, functioning, and dynamics of a savanna ecosystem. Burrows ND A framework for assessing acute impacts of fire in jarrah forests for ecological studies. Byram, G. Combustion of forest fuels. Davis, editor. Forest fire: control and use.
Candollea — [In French. Biology International Special Issue — Gignoux, J. Barot, J. Menaut, and R. Vuattoux Structure, long term dynamics and demography of the tree community. Le Roux, and M. Lepage, editors.
Lamto: structure, functioning and dynamics of a savanna ecosystem. Mordelet, and J. Biomass cycle and primary production. Ecological studies, J The influences of tree biology and fire in the spatial structure of the West African savanna. Understanding the drivers of fire feedbacks at savanna—forest boundaries. Le Roux, X.
Survey and modelling of water and energy exchanges between soil, vegetation and atmosphere in a Guinea savanna. Annual rainfall map of Africa. Commonwealth Forestry Review 74 4 — Morrison DA Effects of fire intensity on plant species composition of sandstone communities in the Sydney region.
Pagney, P. Lamotte and J. Tireford, editors. R Development Core Team R: a language and environment for statistical computing. International Journal of Wildland Fire — Candolllea —37 [In French. Ecological Applications 9 4 — Trollope, W. Control of bush encroachment with fire in the arid savannas of south-eastern Africa. Trollope, and D. Fire behaviour a key factor in the ecology of African grasslands and savannas.trougorobsan.tk
Season affects fire behavior in annually burned humid savanna of West Africa
Paper in: D. Viega, editor. Forest fire research and wildland fire safety: proceedings of IV international conference on forest fire research wildland fire safety summit, Luso, Coimbra, Portugal, 18—23 November , Millpress, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Since they have unimodular boundary Since they have unimodular boundary values, they appear in many extremal problems of complex analysis.