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  2. Inorganic Materials Synthesis and Fabrication (Hardcover, Revised)
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  5. Inorganic Materials Synthesis and Fabrication

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Inorganic Materials Synthesis and Fabrication (Hardcover, Revised)

ISBN cloth 1. Inorganic compounds. Lalena, John N. I55 Accordingly, the primary emphasis was on structure—property correlation. A comprehensive treatment of the broader general topic of inorganic materials science necessitates that we discuss chemical, synthetic, and fabrication processes, topics we now take up in detail. Customarily, chemists have been interested in the submicroscopic length scale, studying the compositions and structures of solids, their relationships to prop- erties, and processes that bring about changes in those entities. The physicists who deal with condensed matter have had similar goals working at the electronic length scale, where they have been concerned primarily with describing various physical properties quantitatively.

Becoming consistently common objectives are synthesis and fabrication, which inherently require consideration of details spanning multiple length scales.

Inorganic Materials Synthesis and Fabrication |

Such reactions are conveniently categorized here as being of the solid—vapor, solid—liquid, or solid—solid type. In general, synthetic schemes may be thought of as bottom-up processes where the chemical transformation occurs at the interface between the reacting phases. This book is about the preparation of single-phase inorganic materials. However, we cover top-down materials fabrication processes, such as plastic deformation and consolidation processing in some detail, topics that have traditionally been restricted to materials science and engineering courses.

We believe that students appreciate learning about their heritage, and the history of science is, after all, a worthy scholarly endeavor in and of itself. To maximize the level of expertise applied to this endeavor, invitations were extended to two additional authors, Professor E.

Carpenter and Dr. Dean, both of whom enthusiastically agreed to participate, and we are very grateful for their contributions. The four of us believe that this book would make an excel- lent companion to Principles of Inorganic Materials Design, together serving not only as strong introductory texts to materials science and engineering, chemistry, and physics students, but also as welcomed reference sources for working pro- fessionals.

We are very grateful to the publisher for allowing us to reproduce those portions in this work. Lalena D.

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Cleary E. Carpenter N. Dean 9. We have learned through computational approaches that interatomic potential energy is a function of short-range, long-range, and many-body interactions. For molecular-based substances, one must also consider van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, and capillary and hydrophobic forces. Organic chemists have long been aware of this.

For example, the double-helical structure of DNA is, to a large degree, a consequence of hydrogen bonding between the base pairs. In recent years, supramolecular chemists have focused attention on noncovalent structure-directing intramolecular and intermolecular interactions in the spontaneous formation of ordered aggre- gates, appropriately termed chemical self-assembly processes.

It has been applied increasingly to the synthesis of hybrid organic—inorganic materials. However, due to certain limitations, self-assembly of purely inorganic substances, particularly materials in the micro- to millimeter size range Section 1. Externally, crystals typically possess morphologies showing the highest sym- metry consistent with the chemical and spatial growth constraints imposed.

The crystal faces tend to follow the holohedral, or holosymmetric symmetry, of the crystal class i. Lalena, David. Cleary, Everett E. Carpenter, and Nancy F.

12. Thin Films: Material Choices & Manufacturing, Part I

However, for bipolar devices, the orientation is used. There are numerous other situations in which particular crystal orientations are required as starting material for the fabrication of devices. In a similar fashion, potassium titanyl phosphate, which is widely used for sum frequency generation e. Ionic conduction and atomic diffusion are usually eas- ier along certain crystallographic directions or planes. Because of lattice matching between reactant and product phases, epitaxial reactions surface structure controlled , as well as topotactic reactions bulk crystal structure controlled , proceed under milder synthetic conditions.

Inorganic Materials Synthesis and Fabrication

The kinetic control afforded by the surface step structure in these processes makes possible the obtainment of phases that are thermodynamically metastable but kinetically stable. For example, the face of vanadyl In conjunction with slip casting, magnetic alignment of anisotropic particles may be used to produce polycrystalline materials with a preferred orientation, or texture. Slip, the gliding motion of full planes of atoms or partial planes, called dislocation, allows for the deformation processing of polycrystalline metals forging, extrusion, rolling, swaging, and drawing.

Slip occurs much more readily across close-packed planes in close-packed directions. Because the central topic of this book is synthesis and fabrication, the corre- lation of crystal structure with physical properties is not of primary importance. Nonetheless, as the preceding paragraphs imply, a discussion of the correlation between crystal symmetry and physical properties would be wise. The question is: At what point should we make that presentation? As a result, discrepancies between the observed and expected symmetry of a physical prop- erty may arise when the symmetry of the crystal is deduced solely from its external appearance.

Consequently, it is more appropriate to deduce the struc- ture and symmetry of a crystal from its physical properties. An auspiciously unambiguous relationship exists between crystallographic symmetry and phys- ical properties. It may be stated as follows: The symmetry of a physical phenomenon is [at least] as high as the crystallographic symmetry. Similarly, the orientation of the princi- pal axes of the matter tensor representing the physical property must also be consistent with the crystal symmetry Section 1.

In addition to physical prop- erties such as electronic and thermal conductivity, mechanical properties such as elasticity, hardness, and yield strength also comply with the crystallographic symmetry. These types Nevertheless, because of crystalline anisotropy, chemical activity e. For example, the silicon face etches more slowly than, but oxidizes nearly twice as rapidly as, the Si face. Single crystals are generally not isotropic.

Hence, the physical properties of single crystals generally will be anisotropic, that is, dependent on the direction in which they are measured. Accordingly, it is necessary to use mathematical expressions known as tensors to explain anisotropic properties in the most precise manner.

A tensor is an object with many components that look and act like compo- nents of ordinary vectors. The number of components necessary to describe a tensor is given by pn , where p is the number of dimensions in space and n is called the rank. This is called a transformation law. Each component is associated with two axes: one from the set of some reference frame and one from the material frame. Three equations, each containing three terms on the right-hand side, are needed to describe a second-rank tensor exactly. For a general Thus, each component of the tensor is associated with a pair of axes.

In general, the number of indices assigned to a tensor component is equal to the rank of the tensor. For our purposes, we need not consider these.